Surveys

ESJF 2019/20 surveys in five European countries

Mykolayiv New Jewish Cemetery (Internatsional'ne)

Country:
Ukraine
Region:
Mykolayiv
District:
Mykolayiv
Settlement:
Mykolayiv
Site Address:
The preserved part of the cemetery is located behind the car shop “Avtogalaktika” on 1, Hersonskoe Road.
GPS coordinates:
46.96078, 32.03957
Perimeter length:
429 metres. The perimeter of the preserved part of the cemetery is 429 metres. The pre-war territory of this huge cemetery was a territory between Khersons'ke Road, Budivel'na Street, Myru Street and Bohoyavlens'ka Street, with approximate perimeter of 2,810 metres.
Is the cemetery demolished:
No
Type and height of existing fence:
The cemetery is surrounded by a concrete and metal fence of 2 to 3 metres in height. An old brick wall is also partly preserved.
General Site Condition:
Fenced and protected Jewish cemetery. The fenced and protected area only makes up a small part of the cemetery. The rest of the cemetery was demolished between 1970 and 1983. The preserved part of the cemetery is severely overgrown.
Number of existing gravestones:
Around 1,000
Date of Oldest Tombstone:
1952
Date of Newest Tombstone:
1969
Urgency of erecting a fence:
Fence is not needed (already fenced)
Traces of Vandalism:
Some graves seem to be dug out.
Land Ownership:
Property of Municipality
Mass Graves on Site:
There is a mass grave of five Russian sailors who perished in 1939.
Drone surveys:
Yes

The New non-Christian cemetery of Mykolayiv (later called Internatsional’ne, meaning “International”) was established in the 1870s. It is visible on a city plan of 1880. In the early 20th century, when Mykolayiv’s Old Peski Jewish cemetery was to be demolished, some burials from here were brought to the Internatsional’ne cemetery. The cemetery included Jewish Ashkenazi, Karaite and Muslim sections. The cemetery was closed in the 1960s. Most of the cemetery was demolished from 1970 until 1983, and some gravestones were used to construct the bridge over the river Ingul. Some burials were brought to the Jewish section of the Old municipal cemetery, which is situated close to the International cemetery. Later, a city zoo and a “Kolos” market were built on the site. A small post-WWII plot of this cemetery was not demolished – presumably because of recent burials, gravestones of the notable town citizens and the mass grave of Russian sailors situated there.

The Jews began to settle in Mykolayiv during the late 18th century. In 1820s, a Great Synagogue was operating. Crafts and trade were the main occupations of the Jews. In 1830, the Jews were prohibited from residing in the town. In 1881 and 1899, pogroms were staged in the city. As a reaction, the Jewish community formed self-defence detachments which prevented the pogrom in 1905. In 1897, the Jewish population numbered 20,109 (22% of the total population). In the early 20th century, the educational sphere was developing and 15 educational facilities were maintained by the Jewish community. The population numbered 21,786 in 1926. In the same year, a law court in which lawsuits and claims were regarded in Yiddish was established. In the 1920s, five elementary school for Jewish children were functioning. A vocational school and a high school were also active. Many Jews worked at factories and plants. The population numbered 25,280 (15% of the total population) in 1939. The Wehrmacht occupied Mykolayiv on August 17, 1941. From September 21 to 23, 1941, more than 6,000 Jews were murdered 12 km outside of the city. One monument was erected in 1962. In 2008, another monument was set up on the place of the mass shooting. A Jewish religion community was re-established in Mykolaiv in 1991, and there was a Jewish population functioning here in 2016.