Surveys

ESJF 2019/20 surveys in five European countries

Mykolayiv Old Municipal Cemetery - Jewish Section

Country:
Ukraine
Region:
Mykolayiv
Settlement:
Mykolayiv
Site Address:
The Jewish section is located at the southern part of the Mykolaiv Jewish Old municipal cemetery on 35, Stepova Street, adjacent to Khersons'ke Road, opposite the International cemetery.
GPS coordinates:
46.96327, 32.03670
Perimeter length:
717 metres
Is the cemetery demolished:
No
Type and height of existing fence:
No fence
General Site Condition:
Jewish section within municipal cemetery. The Jewish section is overgrown with trees and bushes, and the major part of it looks abandoned. There are also Christian burials in the Jewish section.
Number of existing gravestones:
Around 40. Clearing the site may reveal more tombstones.
Date of Oldest Tombstone:
1951 (oldest found by ESJF expedition)
Date of Newest Tombstone:
1971
Urgency of erecting a fence:
Low. The Jewish section does not have its​ own fence, but the municipal cemetery is fenced.
Land Ownership:
Property of Municipality
Preserved Construction on Site:
There is a memorial to Holocaust victims on the site.
Drone surveys:
Yes

The Jewish section on the Mykolayiv Old municipal cemetery emerged after the closing of Mykolayi International Cemetery. It was used mainly in the 1960s and early 1970s, until the Jewish section on Mishkove cemetery was opened. It seems that some tombstones and graves were brought here from the International cemetery, when the last stone was demolished.

The Jews began to settle in Mykolayiv during the late 18th century. In 1820s, a Great Synagogue was operating. Crafts and trade were the main occupations of the Jews. In 1830, the Jews were prohibited from residing in the town. In 1881 and 1899, pogroms were staged in the city. As a reaction, the Jewish community formed self-defence detachments which prevented the pogrom in 1905. In 1897, the Jewish population numbered 20,109 (22% of the total population). In the early 20th century, the educational sphere was developing and 15 educational facilities were maintained by the Jewish community. The population numbered 21,786 in 1926. In the same year, a law court in which lawsuits and claims were regarded in Yiddish was established. In the 1920s, five elementary schools​ for Jewish children were functioning. A vocational school and a high school were also active. Many Jews worked at factories and plants. The population numbered 25,280 (15% of the total population) in 1939. The Wehrmacht occupied Mykolayiv on August 17, 1941. From September 21 to 23, 1941, more than 6,000 Jews were murdered 12 km outside of the city. One monument was erected in 1962. In 2008, another monument was set up on the place of the mass shooting. A Jewish religious community was re-established in Mykolaiv in 1991, and there was a Jewish population functioning here in 2016.