Surveys in Ukraine

ESJF 2019/20 surveys in five European countries

Kremenets' Jewish Cemetery

Drone survey :
Kremenets' Jewish Cemetery
Kremenets' Jewish Cemetery
Perimeter map :
Kremenets' Jewish Cemetery
Country:
Ukraine
Region:
Ternopyl
District:
Kremenets'
Settlement:
Kremenets'
Site Address:
The cemetery is located on the crossroads of Kreydyana and Dzherel'na Streets.
GPS coordinates:
50.10568, 25.73380
Perimeter length:
737 metres
Is the cemetery demolished:
No
Type and height of existing fence:
Type of the fence. The cemetery is surrounded by a metal mesh and gabion fence with metal gates.
General Site Condition:
Fenced and protected Jewish cemetery. The cemetery is slightly overgrown. It requires clearing. The fence is in excellent condition.
Number of existing gravestones:
About 3000
Date of Oldest Tombstone:
1825 (oldest found by ESJF expedition)
Date of Newest Tombstone:
1940 (latest found by ESJF expedition)
Urgency of erecting a fence:
Fence is not needed
Land Ownership:
Municipality/Property of local community
Drone surveys:
Yes

The exact period of the cemetery’s establishment is unknown. According to an expedition of US Commission in the 2000s, the earliest preserved gravestone relates to the early 17th century. In 2018, ESJF expedition did not locate this gravestone on the site. The cemetery fence was installed by ESJF in August 2017.
First recordings about the Jewish life in Kremenets relates to 1438. In 1552, 240 Jews lived in Kremenets (10,6% of the total population). In 1563, two synagogues, a Jewish hospital, a yeshiva, and a Jewish cemetery operated. The representatives from the community participated in the Council of the Four Lands. In 1648–49, the Jewish community was attacked by the Khmelnytskyi’ troops. Rabbis served in Kremenets from the 16th century. In the late 18th century, a Hasidic community was headed by the son of Ihla-Mihla of Zolochev, Mordehai (1746–1820). I.B.Levinson contributed to a Haskala movement. In 1897, the Jewish population reached 6539 (37% of the total population). First Zionist organizations began to act in the early 20th century. The Bund branch functioned as well. In 1910, 13 synagogues, a Talmud Torah, heders, and a Jewish cemetery were in operation. Trade and crafts in the town were almost entirely concentrated in the hands of the Jews. By that time, the local Jews owned five hotels, four printing houses, brickworks, metal manufactories, a match factory, etc. In May 1919, the Jews were massacred by the army of the Directorate of Ukraine. In the interwar period, an ORT school, kindergarten, Talmud-Torah and yeshiva, as well as several Jewish libraries functioned. Two periodicals, “Kremenitser Shtime” and “Kremenitser Vohenblat”, were issuing in the 1930s. In 1931, 7,256 (36,5% of the total population) were inhabitants of Kremenets. In September 1939, the thousands of refugees arrived in Kremenets. In August 1941, a synagogue and a Jewish cemetery were demolished. Mass executions of Jews continued from the beginning of occupation on July 3, 1941, till October 1941. On March 1, 1942, the surviving 9,340 Jews were imprisoned in a ghetto. On 10-17 August 1942, the ghetto was liquidated, and more than 6,400 people were murdered. In 2003, some Jews lived here.