Zuromin Jewish Cemetery
The Jewish cemetery in Żuromin was established during the first half of the 19th century, probably in the 1840s, after the independence of the local Jewish community. Before that, Żuromin Jews used the cemetery in nearby Kluczbork. Only documents dated from 1859 referring to the fencing have survived. The cemetery is located northwest of the market square and covers an area of approximately one hectare.
It was destroyed during the Second World War, but its devastation continued after the conflict. The area remained abandoned until 2009, when descendants of Jews from Żuromin, in cooperation with the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland, cleaned up and fenced the cemetery. No matzevot (sacred pillar or tombstone) have survived. One matzevah found in town is now stored in a local school. In 2011, plaques with about 300 names of Jewish families who lived in Żuromin before the Second World War were placed on the wall of the cemetery.
Żuromin records date back to the end of the 13th century. Until the 18th century, it was a noble property that belonged to the Szczygieł, Dąbski, Działyński, and Zamojski families. Magdeburg town privileges were granted to Żuromin in 1765. The first Jews began to settle in Żuromin at the beginning of the 19th century. Initially, they belonged to the synagogue supervision in Kluczbork but later in 1843, they formed an independent Jewish community.
In 1827, there were 415 Jews in the town, which constituted 30.4% of the total population. In 1931, the number of Jewish inhabitants increased to 1,959 people – 57% of the total population. In October 1939, the town was incorporated into the Reich. In September 1939, the Germans burned down the local synagogue, and until November 8, 1939, they deported local Jews to Nowy Dwór and Warsaw. Some people were sent to the labor camp in Pomiechówek. After the concentration of the Jewish population in selected larger ghettos of the Ciechanów District, Żuromin Jews were gathered mainly in Ciechanów and Mława, from where they were deported to the extermination camps at Treblinka and Auschwitz-Birkenau in November 1942.