Sataniv Jewish Cemetery

Cemetery Information

Country
Ukraine
Region
Khmelnytskyy
District
Horodok
Settlement
Sataniv
Site address
Sataniv Jewish Cemetery
GPS coordinates
49.249,26.24844
Perimeter length
752 metres
Is the cemetery demolished
no
Type and height of existing fence
No fence
Preservation condition
Fenced and protected Jewish cemetery
General site condition
Unfenced Jewish cemetery. The cemetery is located on a hill. There is a staircase on the eastern side. The site is slightly overgrown. It requires clearing and fencing.
Number of existing gravestones
3000
Date of oldest tombstone
1554
Date of newest tombstone
1958
Urgency of erecting a fence
High
Land ownership
Property of local community
Preserved construction on site
There are four ohel on the cemetery site. The first is dedicated to Rabbi Israel Kharif (died in 1781). The second is built in honour to Rabbi Haim Satanover and Rabbi Menahem Mendl of Sataniv. The third is the ohel of Rabbi Issachar Ber (died in 1710) and Rabbanith Rivka (died in 1768). The fourth ohel commemorates the memory of Rabbi Yosef Blokh, a student of Besht and Magid of Mezhyrich, an author of book Ginzei Yosef. There are also two tsyunim on the site, dedicated to Rabbi Alexander Sander Margaliot, an author of the book Tshuvat Reem, and Rabbi Mordekhai Margaliot (died in 1728).
Drone surveys
No

Historical overview

Presumably, the Jewish cemetery was established in the mid-16th century. According to epigraphic data, it already existed in the 1550s. The cemetery was operated after WWII so far as the latest preserved gravestone relates to the mid-20th century. First, it was marked on Russian maps of the 1880s, and, later, on another Russian map of the beginning of the 20th century. Jews were present in 1532. In the first half of the 16th century, a first synagogue and a Jewish cemetery were established. The Jewish community suffered the Tatars raids in the 1530s, the Khmelnytskyi massacres in 1651 and Haidamak rebellion in 1703. In 1765, the Jewish population stood at 1,369 people, and by 1897, it grew to 2,848 (68% of the total). Rabbi Leib Segal-Geller deputized Podolia in the Council of the Four Lands. In the 18th century, an independent community was created. Jews were mainly engaged in renting, trade and crafts. Jewish merchants from Sataniv regularly visited European fairs. Rabbi Mendel of Sataniv was a member of a rabbinical court that held a public trial of Jacob Frank’s movement followers in 1756. In the late 18th century, the Sataniv Hasidic community was headed by Israel Geleenter, also know as Magid of Sataniv, an adherent of Baal Shem Tov. In the late 19th century, Rabbi Hanoch-Genoch (1800–1884) founded a Hasidic court. In the late 19th century, Husiatin and Zinkov Hasids maintained their synagogues. In 1889, eight synagogues and a mikvah functioned. In 1913, a film screening in a newly-opened cinema was dedicated to the life of Jewish colonists in Erets Israel. In the 20th century, nine synagogues operated. In 1905, the Zionist groups were active. A Jewish elementary school for girls and several headers were established. In 1910, a Talmud-Torah was opened. In 1911, a private Jewish printing house was established. In July 1915, during the retreat of the Russian army, Jews were expelled, and they were allowed to return in a year. From 1917, the Bund, as well as branches of Tseiray Zion and Gehalutz were active. A Jewish public school Ivri and a library functioned. In 1919, 18 Jews were drafted into the Ukrainian People’s Republic army, and four of them were murdered by the Ukrainian fellow soldiers. In summer of 1919, during a pogrom, staged by the Ukrainian People’s Republic army, three soldiers of the Jewish self-defence detachment were killed. In 1923, 2,237 Jews resided in Sataniv. Under the Soviets, the Zionist organizations, Hebrew classes and religious institutions were restricted. In 1932, the majority of 295 yards which comprised the Giant kolkhoz were Jewish. In 1939, the Jewish population dropped to 1,516 (nearly 50% of the total) but then increased to around 2,500 in 1940 when the refugees came from the West of Ukraine. On July 6, 1941, the Wehrmacht occupied the city. On May 14–15, 1942, 240 Jews were walled up alive in cellars of an old house. In total, 647 Jews were executed during the occupation.