Pavoloch Oldest Jewish Cemetery

Cemetery Information

Country
Ukraine
Region
Zhytomyr
District
Popelnyansky
Settlement
Pavoloch
Site address
The cemetery is located opposite the house No.169a Bessarabia street.
GPS coordinates
49.86529, 29.44885
Perimeter length
328 мetres
Is the cemetery demolished
yes
Type and height of existing fence
The cemetery is not fenced.
Preservation condition
Demolished Jewish cemetery that has not been built over
General site condition
The cemetery has been demolished, part of the territory is used for vegetable gardens. It is covered with seasonal vegetation. There is a gas compressor on the territory.
Number of existing gravestones
No tombstones preserved.
Date of oldest tombstone
N/A
Date of newest tombstone
N/A
Urgency of erecting a fence
High
Land ownership
Municipality
Preserved construction on site
A Tziyun stands on the territory, it is clear that they were installed not long ago.
Drone surveys
Yes

Historical overview

According to the Commission on the Preservation of Jewish Heritage, the burials stopped from the beginning of the 20th century due to the opening of a new cemetery. It was demolished after WWII, and it later became a market square.

Jews first began to settle in Pavoloch (Ukr. Паволоч, Rus. Паволочь, Yid. פּאָוואָלאָטש) in the 17th century. The community was devastated during the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648–49, and there were only 3 Jews in Pavoloch in 1683, the town’s population at this point was only 42 people. In 1736, 35 Jews were killed in the Haidamak revolt. In 1753, 13 Jews from the area, including the rabbi of Pavoloch R. Akiva, were executed in a blood libel. The Jewish population grew from 103 in 1765, (including neighbouring smaller settlements) to 2,113 in 1847, and reached 3,391Jewish residents, which was 37% of the town in 1897. The Jewish community maintained a synagogue and several prayer houses, a cemetery and a loan fund. There was a considerable emigration to the USA, and the First Pavolocher Sick Benevolent Association was founded in New York in 1908. The community survived several pogroms during the Civil War of 1918–21. The Jewish population declined in the interwar period and had fallen to 630 Jewish residents (11%) in 1939. After the German invasion in 1941, many of the local Jews managed to flee the advancing German troops.
The exact date of establishment of the cemetery is unknown. According to the 1994–95 survey of the Jewish Preservation Committee (KSEN), its use was discontinued in the early 20th century when a new cemetery was opened. The old cemetery was demolished after WWII. The monument to R. Aharon Titeiver and to the blood libel martyrs of Pavoloch was built in the 21st century.

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