Nadudvar Jewish Cemetery 1
There used to be two Jewish cemeteries in Nádudvar. There is some dispute concerning the time in which the cemetery was establish. According to one source it was founded around the same time the first Jews arrived in Nádudvar in 1750. Another source states that the cemetery was established in the early 1700s and was also used for the Jewish communities in Kaba and Földes who did not have their own cemeteries at the time. The oldest tombstone found in this cemetery dates to the 1800s, while the latest was erected in 1942. After the Holocaust, survivors inaugurated a memorial for the victims in the cemetery. Between 2012-2015, the cemetery was restored by an HFPJC project. They cleared the site and restored two small buildings (ohel), which house two and one gravestones respectively.
Nádudvar is one of the oldest Jewish communities in the region. Registration of Jews in records indicates that the first Jews settled in the town in 1750. Jews were recorded in tax censuses from 1770 – the same decade in which the oldest tombstones were erected. In 1786, the Jewish population was 84. In 1794, the famous Rabbi of Nagykálló, Eisig Taub, wrote a letter to rebuild the collapsed synagogue. By public donations, the synagogue was restored in 1802, at Nyerges Street. The Chevra Kadisha (burial society) was founded in 1800, at which point it belonged to Nagykálló. In 1841 the synagogue was renovated. The organized Jewish community was established in 1806, and they hired a butcher and a teacher. In a document from 1821, Kalman Habermann was mentioned as the Jewish educator. In 1852, Jews accounted for 412 people of the town’s total population of 6,877. Following the installation of Rabbi Mayer Rosenfeld in 1860 as the town’s rabbi, the community built a Mikveh (ritual bath). In 1873, Mór Fischer established a Jewish public school at Baksay street. It was open until 1925 when state subsidies were withdrawn. In 1928 it was sold and turned into a legal office. In 1876 the Jewish Women’s Society was founded. In 1900, the Jewish population peaked at 505. In 1920, they erected a marble plaque in memory of fallen Jewish soldiers in World War I. In 1941, there were 210 Jews living in the town. In the same year, Jewish men were sent to forced labour. On April 11, 1944, all the Jews of Nádudvar were forced into the synagogue along with Jews from Kaba, which became the ghetto. From here (indirectly) the Jews were deported to Debrecen. A small group was sent to Austria. They survived the Holocaust and erected a memorial for the victims when they returned to the town. The remaining 56 Jews re-established the community, though most of the members left the town soon after. By 1953, there were no Jews left in Nádudvar. The synagogue was later demolished. In 1988, Nádudvar erected a plaque commemorating the victims of the Holocaust.
Over the years, the rabbis of Nádudvar were as follows: Hers Glauber (1790-1802), Sándor Seelenfreund ( -1815, until his death), Májer Seelenfreund (from 1820), Jakab Fleissig (died in 1873), Májer Rosenfeld worked between (1860-1879, he moved to Miskolc), Jakab Schück (1879-1915, when he passed away), and Izrael Jungreisz (born in 1882, worked between 1915-1944).