Mykolayiv New Jewish Cemetery (Internatsional’ne)
The New non-Christian cemetery of Mykolayiv (later called Internatsional’ne, meaning “International”) was established in the 1870s. It is visible on a city plan of 1880. In the early 20th century, when Mykolayiv’s Old Peski Jewish cemetery was to be demolished, some burials from here were brought to the Internatsional’ne cemetery. The cemetery included Jewish Ashkenazi, Karaite and Muslim sections. The cemetery was closed in the 1960s. Most of the cemetery was demolished from 1970 until 1983, and some gravestones were used to construct the bridge over the river Ingul. Some burials were brought to the Jewish section of the Old municipal cemetery, which is situated close to the International cemetery. Later, a city zoo and a “Kolos” market were built on the site. A small post-WWII plot of this cemetery was not demolished – presumably because of recent burials, gravestones of the notable town citizens and the mass grave of Russian sailors situated there.
The Jews began to settle in Mykolayiv during the late 18th century. In 1820s, a Great Synagogue was operating. Crafts and trade were the main occupations of the Jews. In 1830, the Jews were prohibited from residing in the town. In 1881 and 1899, pogroms were staged in the city. As a reaction, the Jewish community formed self-defence detachments which prevented the pogrom in 1905. In 1897, the Jewish population numbered 20,109 (22% of the total population). In the early 20th century, the educational sphere was developing and 15 educational facilities were maintained by the Jewish community. The population numbered 21,786 in 1926. In the same year, a law court in which lawsuits and claims were regarded in Yiddish was established. In the 1920s, five elementary school for Jewish children were functioning. A vocational school and a high school were also active. Many Jews worked at factories and plants. The population numbered 25,280 (15% of the total population) in 1939. The Wehrmacht occupied Mykolayiv on August 17, 1941. From September 21 to 23, 1941, more than 6,000 Jews were murdered 12 km outside of the city. One monument was erected in 1962. In 2008, another monument was set up on the place of the mass shooting. A Jewish religion community was re-established in Mykolaiv in 1991, and there was a Jewish population functioning here in 2016.