Mariupol Old Jewish Cemetry
The establishment of the Mariupol Jewish cemetery is unknown. The oldest tombstone dates to 1870.
Mariupol (Ukr. Маріуполь, former spelling Маріюпіль, Rus. Мариуполь, in 1948–89 Zhdanov, Ukr., Rus. Жданов) had a Jewish population of 111 in 1847, although Jews were not officially allowed to settle in the city until 1859. The first synagogue (destroyed during World War I) was built in 1864. By 1897, the Jewish population rose to 5,013 (16% of the total population). The Bund became active in the early 20th century. 22 Jews were killed in a pogrom in 1905.
In the 1910s, the Jewish community maintained 4 synagogues, a cemetery, a Jewish hospital, 4 Jewish schools, a Talmud Torah, and a loan fund. A large number of Jewish refugees arrived in the city during World War I. A branch of Poalei Zion was established after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Another pogrom occurred in 1919. The Soviet authorities opened a Yiddish-language elementary school and a Jewish library.
There were 10,944 Jews (5% of the total population) in Mariupol in 1939. After the Germans arrived in October 1941, about 8,000 Jews were murdered within a few days. The Jewish community was re-established after the war. There were about 3,400 Jews (1% of the total population) in Mariupol in 1959. Jewish community life was revived once again in the 1990s. According to the 2001 census, there were 1,176 Jews in Mariupol.