Hvardiis’ke Old Jewish Cemetery
The exact period of the cemetery’s establishment is unknown. Presumably, it was established in the 19th century since it appears on Russian maps of the 1870s and 1899. It was not marked on later maps. The oldest preserved gravestones relate to the mid 19th century, the latest relates to the end of the 19th century. Jews first settled in the first half of the 18th century. In 1765, 469 Jews were residents. The Jews in Hvardiis’ke were engaged in petty trading, crafts and renting. Four synagogues and headers existed in 1889. From the late 19th century, Israel Kutiver (died in 1904), his son Mordechai Kutiver (born in 1874), David-Shlomo Novoseller (1877-1966) served as rabbis in Hvardiis’ke. The Jewish population numbered 1,885 (95% of the total population) in 1897. In 1911, a Zionist group was active. In 1913, five synagogues, mikvahs and heders functioned. On February 16, 1919, a pogrom organized by the Ukrainian People’s Republic authorities claimed the lives of 686 people (according to other sources, 485 people). In the 1920s, a Jewish pioneer squad, library, club and school were created. A Jewish rural council functioned. In 1923, the Jewish dropped to 1,003 (55,7% of the total population). In the 1930s, 350 Jews were members of the kolkhoz. 1,125 Jews (27,8% of the total) resided in 1939. On July 7, 1941, the German army captured Hvardiis’ke. In 1941–42, the majority of the Jewish population of the town was murdered. In February 1942, the remaining 300 Jews were deported to the Matskovtsy labour camp. A few Jews returned at the end of WWII. In the 1970s and 80s, all the Jews left for Israel.