Holovanivsk Jewish Cemetery
The town of Holovanivs’k was first recorded in 1764, when it belonged to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1790, the Jewish population numbered 456 people. In 1793, after the Second partition of Poland, it came under the control of the Russian Empire, and became a part of the Podolia Governorate (Podolskaya Gubernia). In 1847, the Jewish community of Holovanivs’k numbered 1974 people. In 1887, Jews made up 85% of the town’s population, in 1897, there were 4320 Jewish residents, which was more than half of the population of Holovanivs’k, 8148 people. In the early 20th century, 6 Jewish prayer houses and a private Jewish school operated in the town, almost all the shops and small businesses (mills, pharmacies, groceries) also belonged to Jewish people.
The Jewish population of Holovanivs’k suffered greatly during World War I and the civil war in Russia. In December 1917, a pogrom took place. After that, in early 1918, Jews organized a well-armed self-defence group, which successfully operated for a year and a half. Nonetheless, in August 1919 it was defeated, and a pogrom claimed around 200 of victims.
After 1922, Holovanivs’k became a part of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic within the USSR. In 1923, the Jewish population numbered 3518, later in the 20s and 30s it fell dramatically, and in 1939, the Jewish population was only 1393.
Holovanivs’k was occupied by the Germans and Romanians on July 30th 1941. All Jews of Holovanivs’k were killed en masse between August 1941 and February 1942.
In 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Holovanivs’k became a part of the independent Ukraine.
The Jewish cemetery of Holovanivs’k, established in the early 19th century, contains around 200 headstones and is well preserved.
Local residents use a section of the cemetery for agricultural purposes. However, the cemetery as a whole is well-maintained. One ares is somewhat overgrown. According to locals, part of the cemetery was not in use, and they decided to plant a garden there.